What are the health consequences of steroid use?
Anabolic steroid abuse has been associated with a wide array of adverse side effects ranging from physical manifestations, such as acne and breast development in men, to others that are life threatening, such as heart attacks and liver cancer. Most are reversible if the abuser stops taking the drugs, but some are permanent, such as voice deepening in females.
Most data on the long-term effects of anabolic steroids in humans come from case reports rather than formal epidemiological studies. From the case reports, the incidences of life-threatening effects appear to be low, but serious adverse effects may be underrecognized or underreported, especially since they may occur many years later. Data from animal studies seem to support this possibility. One study found that exposing male mice to steroid doses comparable to those taken by human athletes for one-fifth of their lifespan caused a high frequency of early deaths.
Possible Health Consequences of Anabolic Steroid Abuse
· breast development
· shrinking of the testicles
· male-pattern baldness
· enlargement of the clitoris
· excessive growth of body hair
· male-pattern baldness
· short stature (if taken by adolescents)
· tendon rupture
· increases in LDL
· decreases in HDL
· high blood pressure
· heart attacks
· enlargement of the heart's left ventricle
· peliosis hepatis
· severe acne and cysts
· oily scalp
· fluid retention
Steroid abuse disrupts the normal production of hormones in the body, causing both reversible and irreversible changes. Changes that can be reversed include reduced sperm production and shrinking of the testicles (testicular atrophy). Irreversible changes include male-pattern baldness and breast development (gynecomastia) in men. In one study of male bodybuilders, more than half had testicular atrophy and/or gynecomastia.
In the female body, anabolic steroids cause masculinization. Breast size and body fat decrease, the skin becomes coarse, the clitoris enlarges, and the voice deepens. Women may experience excessive growth of body hair but lose scalp hair. With continued administration of steroids, some of these effects become irreversible.
Rising levels of testosterone and other sex hormones normally trigger the growth spurt that occurs during puberty and adolescence and provide the signals to stop growth as well. When a child or adolescent takes anabolic steroids, the resulting artificially high sex hormone levels can prematurely signal the bones to stop growing.
Steroid abuse has been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart attacks and strokes, even in athletes younger than 30. Steroids contribute to the development of CVD partly by changing the levels of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol in the blood. Steroids, particularly oral steroids, increase the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and decrease the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). High LDL and low HDL levels increase the risk of atherosclerosis, a condition in which fatty substances are deposited inside arteries and disrupt blood flow. If blood is prevented from reaching the heart, the result can be a heart attack. If blood is prevented from reaching the brain, the result can be a stroke. Steroids also increase the risk that blood clots will form in blood vessels, potentially disrupting blood flow and damaging the heart muscle so that it does not pump blood effectively.
Steroid abuse has been associated with liver tumors and a rare condition called peliosis hepatis, in which blood-filled cysts form in the liver. Both the tumors and the cysts can rupture, causing internal bleeding.
Steroid abuse can cause acne, cysts, and oily hair and skin.
Many abusers who inject anabolic steroids may use nonsterile injection techniques or share contaminated needles with other abusers. In addition, some steroid preparations are manufactured illegally under nonsterile conditions. These factors put abusers at risk for acquiring life threatening viral infections, such as HIV and hepatitis B and C. Abusers also can develop endocarditis, a bacterial infection that causes a potentially fatal inflammation of the inner lining of the heart. Bacterial infections also can cause pain and abscess formation at injection sites.
And you can quote me in that
"One year ago, I made a very hard decision to withhold competing and focus on my career as an engineer, so by default I stopped using steroids and many kinds of supplements. This happened to be one of the best decisions I had ever made. I feel healthier now than ever. With the injuries I had for the past couple of months, I was able to start focusing more on flexibility and cardio than weight lifting. I couldn't lift weights, so I was focusing on running, cycling, swimming, and rowing. I'm proud of my shape now more than ever because it's 100% natural. I don't even diet hard, I just eat healthy. For someone who was competing form a very young age like me, to stop using steroids was very difficult. I had become addicted to the power and the looks. Besides their known side effects, steroids are addictive. There's a saying: once you try it you will never train without it. This is mostly true. For those who have never tried steroids and want to, I would say DO NOT. And for the ones that are still using, STOP. Your health is more important than your looks. If you aren't a professional athlete or competing, there's no reason to use them. You can look good and be healthy with good diet and proper training.”
Compiled by: Mohamed Khaled Natta
Source: National Institue on Drug Abuse